This is the story of the science and techniques of interrogation and how they have been applied in real-life cases, using actual police footage as illustrations. A confession is the end game to most interrogation sessions, “enhanced” or not, and intelligence researchers and psychologists have dug into what works and what doesn't. 1 Boston Scientific provides devices tailored to individual needs. Finally, Americans were significantly more likely to employ the emotion provocation, confrontation/competition, and collaboration domains relative to practitioners from Canada and other European nations. Scientific Interrogation: Hypnosis, Polygraphy, Narcoanalysis, Voice Stress and Pupillometrics. Dr. Kelly has been published in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, Criminal Justice and Behavior, Justice Quarterly and the Annual Review of Law and Social Science, and he is a member of the American Psychology-Law Society (APLS) and the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group (iIIRG). The Reid technique for interrogation is not a process designed for the discovery of facts and evidence. From the earliest days of reviewing foundational work in interrogation and investigative interviewing, including the Army Field Manual 2-22.3 and manuals such as the “Reid Technique,” we realized that little standardization existed in the language used to describe and research interrogation methods. Christopher E. Kelly, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice at Saint Joseph's University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). interrogation. the act of interrogating; questioning. For the past four years, we have worked to develop new methods of intelligence interviewing and interrogation. 17 Allison D. Redlich and Christian Meissner, “Techniques and Controversies in the Interrogation of Suspects: The Artful Practice Versus the Scientific Study,” in Psychological Science in the Courtroom: Consensus and Controversy, ed. An interrogation is a questioning session in which a questioner attempts to get information from someone who is believed to be involved with a situation or who may have information which could be of use. For instance, techniques that would appear operationally similar to one another would be defined differently across the works (e.g., minimization) depending on the context in which it could be employed. Emerging scientific research reveals non-coercive methods to be the most effective interrogation techniques. The Good Cop, Bad Cop interrogation technique is the carrot and stick of police interrogation. The operational mission of the HIG was to conduct interrogations of high-value terrorism suspects. For instance, using a measure of suspect cooperation as our dependent variable, we found that rapport and relationship building significantly increases cooperation but that emotion provocation, confrontation/competition, and presentation of evidence significantly decreases suspect cooperation. My colleagues and I were initially tasked with developing a systematic survey to be deployed online to the operational community of military and criminal interrogators, investigators, and HUMINT gatherers in the United States and later, around the world. They have developed methods that enhance memory recall and evaluate what kind of questioning can help an interrogator judge whether a suspect is telling the truth or not. Steve Schrimpf of the Greeley (Colo.) Police Department has spent years conducting interviews and criminal interrogations. Since 1980, advancing and teaching the Scientific Detection of Deception and related Credibility Assessment Techniques; For Classes in the U.S.A. and Worldwide Nate Gordon, Director +1.215.732.3349. By Christopher E. Kelly When discussing the “science of interrogation,” the following disclaimer is critical: This post will be about the science of humane … In fact, existing research into current practices in the US indicates that the use of an accusatorial approach – characterized by accusation, confrontation and psychological manipulation – can produce false confessions if applied against innocent subjects. ), and the role of culture and language (including the influence of interpreters). Not surprisingly, key findings in the report also call into question the claimed efficacy of EITs in eliciting reliable intelligence information. 12/11/2014 11:46 am ET Updated Feb 10, 2015. Soon after his inauguration, President Obama signed Executive Order 13491 that created a Special Task Force on Interrogations and Transfer Policies that ultimately lead to the creation of a new interagency collaboration called the High Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG). Our findings clearly show that interrogation strategies that are based on building rapport and seek to understand a suspect’s motivation to cooperate are more effective than accusatory practices that look to raise anxiety levels, fabricate evidence, and minimize a suspect’s perception of their own culpability. The most popular approach for handling suspects has no scientific support. What is Interrogation? To be sure, such a science has been practiced for at least the past two decades, particularly with regard to distinguishing the factors leading to true versus false confessions in a law enforcement context. In total, approximately 300 American and international practitioners completed the survey as a result of invitations sent out by professional societies and through our professional networks. This effort lead to the publication of “A Taxonomy of Interrogation Methods” that differentiated between “macro” level dichotomies such as rapport-based / control-based interrogation, friendly / harsh, or maximization / minimization and the “micro” level specific techniques that are very refined in their definitions. These two terms are often used interchangeably as if they refer to the same process. Do Narcissists Prefer to Date Other Narcissists? It is time that the practice of interrogation be similarly informed by scientific scrutiny. How have they led to the conviction of the toughest criminals or cleared the innocent? Statement analysis, also called scientific content analysis (SCAN), is a technique for analyzing the words people use to try to determine if what they said is accurate.Proponents claim this technique can be used to detect concealed information, missing information, and whether the information that person has provided is true or false. Learn of the exciting new frontiers in lie detection. In 2009, the Obama administration created the High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG), an inter-agency group comprising personnel from the FBI, CIA, and (Defense Intelligence Agency) DIA. It is time that the practice of interrogation be similarly informed by scientific scrutiny. To be sure, there are differences between HUMINT and law enforcement interrogations, especially in their goals or outcomes, but to date no systematic investigation into actual practices has conclusively found that what these various practitioners do dramatically differs. By this we mean that the phenomenon is a fluid one, where what the interrogator does and how the suspect responds changes over the course of an interrogation, and the extant research has not begun to capture the complexities inherent to interrogation. This device interrogation will assess if the pacemaker lead wires going into the heart are functioning normally, that the battery level is okay, and will assess if there have been any abnormal heart rhythms detected by the pacemaker. An interview is not accusatory and may be conducted relatively early during a police investigation. It is used to get evidence that may or may not establish guilt. It is typically a series of questions put to a person suspected of committing a crime or indirectly involved in the commission of a crime. The purpose of the survey was to establish a sort of baseline of information about the methods interrogators use and perceive to be effective with uncooperative sources, detainees, or suspects. Furthermore, in statistical models, the negative effect on cooperation of the confrontation/competition domain lasts for fifteen minutes, controlling for the other domains employed in the interim. Learn of the exciting new frontiers in lie detection. In the last two days, in the wake of the Senate Intelligence Committee’s damning report on CIA interrogation practices, he has allowed that so-called “enhanced interrogation” may be illegal and … The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. In collaboration with Allison Redlich and Jeaneé Miller, I have been part of the HIG’s research agenda since its inception, and the remainder of this post will summarize the research we have been working on. And efforts are now being made to integrate this science and practice into international law and global policing initiatives. Our group has produced more than 60 studies – from experimental research to interviews and surveys of interrogation professionals and systematic analysis of specific criminal and counterterrorist interrogation interviews. See Synonyms at ask. In addition, the HIG was also tasked with developing a research program to assess the effectiveness of current interrogation practices and to develop novel, science-based methods. In general, the rate at which LAPD interrogators employed the domains was remarkably similar to those from the self-reported survey. An interrogation instruction manual that places considerable emphasis on detecting deception; advocates presenting suspects with crime-relevant images/sketches and interpreting their reactions to identify deceit and guilt prior to initiating an interrogation whose sole purpose is to extract a confession. The Understudied Trait That Makes for Happier Relationships, Adult ADHD, Perfectionism, and Procrastination, Psychology Today © 2020 Sussex Publishers, LLC, Want to Make Someone Feel Better? The report concludes that the CIA program was more widespread and egregious than the American public – and Congressional oversight committees – had been led to believe. Fascinating article about two psychologists who are studying interrogation techniques.. Now, two British researchers are quietly revolutionising the study and practice of interrogation. Lastly, in a paper that is currently under review, we are advancing what is known about interrogation by analyzing the “dynamic” nature of it. Validate Their Feelings. However, the results of our efforts are available to both the scientific and professional communities. Furthermore, no scientific assessment of the techniques can be offered to demonstrate their effectiveness in practice. for obtaining information. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. LSI Laboratory for Scientific Interrogation, Inc. LSI Webinar and LSI 24/7 "Distance Learning" LSI Seminar on. They look at the impact of the interrogation context (how should we setup the interrogation room? Professionals Medical Specialties A complete description of the implications of this research is too detailed to be included here. A 2006 Intelligence Science Board concluded that the US Government’s interrogation practices were largely devoid of any scientific validity. In addition to its operational duties, the HIG was tasked with creating an unclassified program of research to evaluate best practices in lawful interrogation. Up to 20% smaller and 24% thinner than some ICDs on the market, 2 the MINI offers all the power of a Boston Scientific ICD in a device that is the industry’s sleekest and designed for patient comfort. The Science of Interrogation. Authors, Polygraph and Interrogation Experts. The report’s first finding agreed – the “CIA’s use of its enhanced interrogation techniques was not an effective means of acquiring intelligence or gaining cooperation from detainees”. Unfortunately, ethical issues once again pervade any such discussion. We’ve Got Depression All Wrong. It was originally part of the Reid Technique but is used as a standalone tactic these days. Get the help you need from a therapist near you–a FREE service from Psychology Today. Further, the “information gathering approach,” as it is known, preserves the ethical principles of fairness and justice and is legally permissible. Preventing Violence . Just as important, it should prompt us to consider how we devise our future interrogation practices. The absence of (and need for) scientific scrutiny on this issue is obvious. Medicine and education have turned to researchers for the development of evidence-based approaches. Much more research is clearly needed into the incredibly complex dynamic of interrogation. Without question, these findings on the dynamic nature of interrogation do not account for variables related to either the interrogator or the suspect, and the results only begin to account for the reciprocal effects of interpersonal interactions (i.e., whether and how the interrogator employs certain methods based on suspect behavior). There is much work, however, to go in terms of refining the definitions and indicators (i.e., techniques) of the domains and especially their utility in the areas of training, practice, and policy. Currently, Dr. Kelly is leading a field experiment with the Philadelphia Police Department that examines how the context in which police interviews affect interviewees’ information disclosure and cooperation. What are the key elements in its arsenal? Since that time, researchers from the United States, Europe, Australia and elsewhere have been working to fulfill the Task Force’s mandate and a science of humane and ethical interrogation has begun to emerge. The philosopher Helen Longino has called this process of critical scrutiny transformative interrogation: interrogation, because it’s tough, and transformative … Read the original article . This article was originally published on The Conversation . In sum, we are finding that the parsimonious six domain framework is useful for research in terms of describing what interrogators do and what is related to relevant outcomes such as cooperation and confession. This research is unclassified and is conducted with the oversight of Human Subjects Review Committees that protect the rights and welfare of study participants. an instance of being interrogated: He seemed shaken after his interrogation. While proponents claim these methods are necessary to compel uncooperative subjects to divulge critical information, critical analysis fails to justify their use. writings on the Army Field Manual, we identified six “meso” level domains that are conceptually distinct from one another and sorted more than 60 specific techniques into one of each: rapport and relationship building, emotion provocation, context manipulation, confrontation/competition, collaboration, and presentation of evidence. Functional MRI can look inside the skull and reveal how people … This article was originally published on The Conversation. Chris Matthews, who hosts the MSNBC news program Hardball, is convinced that torture works. Legal Responses to Nonconsensual Pornography, Red Flag Laws: The Future of Extreme Risk Protection Orders. Is There a Scientific Way to Interrogate? [See BOX for domain definitions and examples of constituent techniques for each.]. These studies assess the importance of social relationships, active listening and personal rapport in extracting information. What is the science of interrogation? Since 2010, I have led a group of internationally renowned psychologists from the US, UK, Sweden, Australia, Southeast Asia, South Africa, and the Middle East to do just that. These techniques—particularly when used in combination—often constitute cruel, inhuman, or degradi… LSI stands for Laboratory for Scientific Interrogation (also Large Scale Integration and 389 more ) What is the abbreviation for Laboratory for Scientific Interrogation? When discussing the “science of interrogation,” the following disclaimer is critical: This post will be about the science of humane and ethical interrogation that has the goal of eliciting verifiable, actionable intelligence and/or true confessions. Well as current behavioral science perspectives about the a distinction between an interview and an interrogation the complex... 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